Coffee trees are clipped short to conserve their energy and assist in harvesting but can grow to a height exceeding 30 feet (9 meters) high. Each tree is covered with waxy leaves, green growing opposite each other in pairs. Coffee cherries usually grow along the branches. It grows in a continuous cycle; thereby it's not unusual to see flowers, green fruit, and ripe fruit concurrently on a single tree. Usually, it takes cherry almost a year to mature after first flowering, and close to five years of growth to reach its full potential for fruit production. Coffee plants can live up to 100 years; however, they are usually most productive between the ages of Seven and Twenty. Proper care can enhance their output over the years. However, it depends on the variety. The average coffee tree produces Ten pounds of coffee cherry per year or about two pounds of green beans. Coffee grown commercially from a region of the world is referred to as the Coffee Belt. The trees grow best in rich soil, frequent rain, shaded sun, and mild temperatures.
2.0 COFFEE ROASTING
Roasting is a heat process carried out to turn coffee into the fragrant and dark brown beans. Roasting coffee converts the physical and chemical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. The roasting process is what produces the typical flavor of coffee by causing the green coffee beans to change in taste. Unroasted beans contain similar, if not higher levels of acids, protein, caffeine, and sugars as those that have been roasted. However, lack of taste of roasted coffee beans can be caused by Maillard and other chemical reactions that occur during roasting.
Some coffee drinkers usually roast coffee at home just like a hobby in order to
experiment with the flavor profile of the beans and achieve the freshest possible
3.0 TYPES OF ROAST
Roasting is a heat process carried out to turn coffee into the fragrant and dark brown Roasters have specific names for their favored roasts, and there is very little industry standardization. Sometimes it leads to some confusion when buying it. Roasts fall into one of four color groups, namely light, medium, medium-dark, and dark.
Most consumers assume that the strong, rich flavor of darker roasts indicates a higher level of caffeine. However, the truth is that light roasts have a slightly higher concentration. A flawless roast is a personal choice that is sometimes influenced by geographic location or national preference.
❖ LIGHT ROASTS
Usually light brown, this roast is commonly preferred for milder coffee assortments.
You will find no oil on the surface of these beans because they are not roasted long enough for the oils to reach the surface.
• Light City
• Half City
❖ MEDIUM ROASTS
This roast is usually medium brown with a non-oily surface and stronger flavor. It's often referred to as the American roast because it is preferred in the United States.
❖ MEDIUM-DARK ROASTS
Dark color and rich, this roast has a slight bittersweet aftertaste with some oil on the surface.
• Full City
❖ DARK ROASTS
Dark roast produces an oily surface, shiny black beans with an oily surface, and a pronounced bitterness. Also, the darker the roast, the less acidity in the coffee
beverage. Dark roast coffees run from slightly dark to charred.
• New Orleans
4.0 THE THINGS NEEDED TO ROAST YOUR COFFEE AT HOME
For you to roast properly, you need the following supplies:
Green Coffee – It is important to get your green bean specialty coffee from a good source this will have a great impact on how your coffee turns out.
Roaster – There are various types of roasters out there; however, a simple popcorn maker is enough.
Storage – After roasting your coffee, store it in a place until used. Also, you need to know, the more airtight, the better. Additionally, even the best container won't stop the coffee from losing its flavor and aroma after about a week if not used.
Note - For a roasting process to be effective, the beans must be heated to
temperatures between 370 degrees F to 540 degrees F. When you roast, ensure the beans remain in constant motion to make sure none of them become scorched. Also, you need to be aware the roasting process produces quite a bit of smoke. Ensure the area to be used for roasting is well ventilated.
5.0 ROASTING COFFEE WITH A ROASTING MACHINE
We have various types of roasting machines made for coffee roasting.
These machines' operation is similar to a popcorn popper by using fastmoving
hot air to roast the beans and keep them disturbed while they are roasting. The
roaster is capable of handling heavy lifting for you.
• Ensure you place the right amount of coffee inside the roaster.
• Ensure the roaster is closed and turn it on.
• Leave the coffee to roast until the desired color is achieved. The
longer you roast the coffee, the stronger and darker it becomes.
• Pour the coffee into a sieve and stir it until it is warm.
• Store coffee in a room-temperature location away from the sun
6.0 ROASTING COFFEE BEANS WITH A HOT AIR POPCORN POPPER
Using air popcorn popper is an easy way to roast coffee. It is recommended for any beginner who wants to start roasting their beans.
It takes a few minutes and allows you to experiment with the roast. Make it dark,
make it light; make it everything in between.
WHAT IS NEEDED:
• Unroasted coffee beans
• An airtight container
• A hot air popcorn popper
• A baking sheet
• A bowl
• A thermometer (optional)
• SETUP AND PRE-HEAT
Ensure you start by gathering all the necessaries in the list above. Get some raw, green unroasted raw beans. Pick up different varieties, and ask how "well done," as in the dark, your trusted baristas like to roast each one. At home, give yourself a counter space for the popper, bowl (for catching chaff), and a baking sheet to cool the beans later. Then, turn the popper on and pre-heat for about 30 (Thirty) seconds.
• ADD THE COFFEE BEANS
Once the popper's good and hot, proceed to add half (1/2) cup of beans to the vessel.
The whole roast will only take about five (5) minutes. Ensure you stay close by to monitor the beans through the various stages of the roast. Ensure you DO NOT leave the popper unattended to.
• ROAST THE COFFEE
As the beans roast, they will pass through numerous stages. You can observe the transition they make from raw to grind-and-brewable, and decide exactly how roasted you want them to be. It's imperative to pay attention to the process here- to control the flavor of your coffee, learn how to master the process, and, most importantly, to keep the beans from burning.
• REMOVE AND COOL
Once you've achieved the desired roast, ensure you shut off the popper and spread the hot beans on the baking sheet. This is carried out for them to cool quickly. Then, give the sheet a shake to help the process and wait until they are completely cooled before storage.
• STORE THE BEANS
Once the beans have cooled down, ensure they are stored in an airtight container. Mason jars or tinted OXO containers is preferred. However, it is imperative to give the beans up to 12 hours before storing them if you have gone Full City Roast or darker, as the gasses from the beans will need more time to dissipate. Once the beans are cooled and stored, it is time to grind and brew the first cup's worth. Take your time, and enjoy it.